Train your TensorFlow model on Google Cloud using TensorFlow Cloud
अगस्त 03, 2020
Posted by Jonah Kohn and Pavithra Vijay, Software Engineers at Google

TensorFlow Cloud is a python package that provides APIs for a seamless transition from debugging and training your TensorFlow code in a local environment to distributed training in Google Cloud. It simplifies the process of training models on the cloud into a single, simple function call, requiring minimal setup and almost zero changes to your model. TensorFlow Cloud handles cloud-specific tasks such as creating VM instances and distribution strategies for your models automatically. This article demonstrates common use cases for TensorFlow Cloud, and a few best practices.

We will walk through classifying dog breed images provided by the stanford_dogs dataset. To make this easy, we will use transfer learning with ResNet50 trained on ImageNet weights. Please find the code from this post here on the TensorFlow Cloud repository.

Setup

Install TensorFlow Cloud using pip install tensorflow_cloud. Let’s start the python script for our classification task by adding the required imports.
import datetime
import os

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow_cloud as tfc
import tensorflow_datasets as tfds

from tensorflow import keras
from tensorflow.keras import layers
from tensorflow.keras.models import Model

Google Cloud Configuration

TensorFlow Cloud runs your training job on Google Cloud using AI Platform services behind the scenes. If you are new to GCP, then please follow the setup steps in this section to create and configure your first Google Cloud Project. If you're new to using the Cloud, first-time setup and configuration will involve a little learning and work. The good news is that after the setup, you won’t need to make any changes to your TensorFlow code to run it on the cloud!
  1. Create a GCP Project
  2. Enable AI Platform Services
  3. Create a Service Account
  4. Download an authorization key
  5. Create a Google Cloud Storage Bucket

GCP Project

A Google Cloud project includes a collection of cloud resources such as a set of users, a set of APIs, billing, authentication, and monitoring. To create a project, follow this guide. Run the commands in this section on your terminal.
export PROJECT_ID=<your-project-id>
gcloud config set project $PROJECT_ID

AI Platform Services

Please make sure to enable AI Platform Services for your GCP project by entering your project ID in this drop-down menu.

Service Account and Key

Create a service account for your new GCP project. A service account is an account used by an application or a virtual machine instance, and is used by Cloud applications to make authorized API calls.
export SA_NAME=<your-sa-name&rt;
gcloud iam service-accounts create $SA_NAME
gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding $PROJECT_ID \
  --member serviceAccount:$SA_NAME@$PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com \
  --role 'roles/editor'
Next, we will need an authentication key for the service account. This authentication key is a means to ensure that only those authorized to work on your project will use your GCP resources. Create an authentication key as follows:
gcloud iam service-accounts keys create ~/key.json --iam-account $SA_NAME@$PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com
Create the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable.
export GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS=~/key.json

Cloud Storage Bucket

If you already have a designated storage bucket, enter your bucket name as shown below. Otherwise, create a Google Cloud storage bucket following this guide. TensorFlow Cloud uses Google Cloud Build for building and publishing a docker image, as well as for storing auxiliary data such as model checkpoints and training logs.
GCP_BUCKET = "your-bucket-name"

Keras Model Creation

The model creation workflow for TensorFlow Cloud is identical to building and training a TF Keras model locally.

Resources

We'll begin by loading the stanford_dogs dataset for categorizing dog breeds. This is available as part of the tensorflow-datasets package. If you have a large dataset, we recommend that you host it on GCS for better performance.
(ds_train, ds_test), metadata = tfds.load(
    "stanford_dogs",
    split=["train", "test"],
    shuffle_files=True,
    with_info=True,
    as_supervised=True,
)
 
NUM_CLASSES = metadata.features["label"].num_classes
Let's visualize the dataset:
print("Number of training samples: %d" % tf.data.experimental.cardinality(ds_train))
print("Number of test samples: %d" % tf.data.experimental.cardinality(ds_test))
print("Number of classes: %d" % NUM_CLASSES)
Number of training samples: 12000 Number of test samples: 8580 Number of classes: 120
plt.figure(figsize=(10, 10))
for i, (image, label) in enumerate(ds_train.take(9)):
    ax = plt.subplot(3, 3, i + 1)
    plt.imshow(image)
    plt.title(int(label))
    plt.axis("off")

Preprocessing

We will resize and batch the data.
IMG_SIZE = 224
BATCH_SIZE = 64
BUFFER_SIZE = 2
 
size = (IMG_SIZE, IMG_SIZE)
ds_train = ds_train.map(lambda image, label: (tf.image.resize(image, size), label))
ds_test = ds_test.map(lambda image, label: (tf.image.resize(image, size), label))
 
def input_preprocess(image, label):
    image = tf.keras.applications.resnet50.preprocess_input(image)
    return image, label

Configure the input pipeline for performance

Now we will configure the input pipeline for performance. Note that we are using parallel calls and prefetching so that I/O doesn’t become blocking while your model is training. You can learn more about configuring input pipelines for performance in this guide.
ds_train = ds_train.map(
    input_preprocess, num_parallel_calls=tf.data.experimental.AUTOTUNE
)
 
ds_train = ds_train.batch(batch_size=BATCH_SIZE, drop_remainder=True)
ds_train = ds_train.prefetch(tf.data.experimental.AUTOTUNE)
 
ds_test = ds_test.map(input_preprocess)
ds_test = ds_test.batch(batch_size=BATCH_SIZE, drop_remainder=True)

Build the model

We will be loading ResNet50 with weights trained on ImageNet, while using include_top=False in order to reshape the model for our task.
inputs = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(IMG_SIZE, IMG_SIZE, 3))
base_model = tf.keras.applications.ResNet50(
    weights="imagenet", include_top=False, input_tensor=inputs
)
x = tf.keras.layers.GlobalAveragePooling2D()(base_model.output)
x = tf.keras.layers.Dropout(0.5)(x)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(NUM_CLASSES)(x)
 
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
We will freeze all layers in the base model at their current weights, allowing the additional layers we added to be trained.
base_model.trainable = False
Keras Callbacks can be used easily on TensorFlow Cloud as long as the storage destination is within your Cloud Storage Bucket. For this example, we will use the ModelCheckpoint callback to save the model at various stages of training, Tensorboard callback to visualize the model and its progress, and the Early Stopping callback to automatically determine the optimal number of epochs for training.
MODEL_PATH = "resnet-dogs"
checkpoint_path = os.path.join("gs://", GCP_BUCKET, MODEL_PATH, "save_at_{epoch}")
tensorboard_path = os.path.join(
    "gs://", GCP_BUCKET, "logs", datetime.datetime.now().strftime("%Y%m%d-%H%M%S")
)
callbacks = [
    tf.keras.callbacks.ModelCheckpoint(checkpoint_path),
    tf.keras.callbacks.TensorBoard(log_dir=tensorboard_path, histogram_freq=1),
    tf.keras.callbacks.EarlyStopping(monitor="val_loss", patience=3),
]

Compile the model

optimizer = tf.keras.optimizers.Adam(learning_rate=1e-2)
model.compile(
    optimizer=optimizer,
    loss=tf.keras.losses.SparseCategoricalCrossentropy(from_logits=True),
    metrics=["accuracy"],
)

Debug the model locally

We'll train the model in a local environment first in order to ensure that the code works properly before sending the job to GCP. We will use tfc.remote() to determine whether the code should be executed locally or on the cloud. Choosing a smaller number of epochs than intended for the full training job will help verify that the model is working properly without overloading your local machine.
if tfc.remote():
    epochs = 500
    train_data = ds_train
    test_data = ds_test
else:
    epochs = 1
    train_data = ds_train.take(5)
    test_data = ds_test.take(5)
    callbacks = None
 
model.fit(
    train_data, epochs=epochs, callbacks=callbacks, validation_data=test_data, verbose=2
)
if tfc.remote():
    SAVE_PATH = os.path.join("gs://", GCP_BUCKET, MODEL_PATH)
    model.save(SAVE_PATH)

Model Training on Google Cloud

To train on GCP, populate the example code with your GCP project settings, then simply call tfc.run() from within your code. The API is simple with intelligent defaults for all the parameters. Again, we don’t need to worry about cloud specific tasks such as creating VM instances and distribution strategies when using TensorFlow Cloud. In order, the API will:
  • Make your python script/notebook cloud and distribution ready.
  • Convert it into a docker image with required dependencies.
  • Run the training job on a GCP cluster.
  • Stream relevant logs and store checkpoints.
The run() API provides significant flexibility for use, such as giving users the ability to specify custom cluster configuration, custom docker images. For a full list of parameters that can be used to call run(), see the TensorFlow Cloud readme.

Create a requirements.txt file with a list of python packages that your model depends on. By default, TensorFlow Cloud includes TensorFlow and its dependencies as part of the default docker image, so there's no need to include these. Please create requirements.txt in the same directory as your python file. requirements.txt contents for this example are:
tensorflow-datasets
matplotlib
By default, the run API takes care of wrapping your model code in a TensorFlow distribution strategy based on the cluster configuration you have provided. In this example, we are using a single node multi-gpu configuration. So, your model code will be wrapped in a TensorFlow `MirroredStrategy` instance automatically.

Call run() in order to begin training on cloud. Once your job has been submitted, you will be provided a link to the cloud job. To monitor the training logs, follow the link and select ‘View logs’ to view the training progress information.
tfc.run(
    requirements_txt="requirements.txt",
    distribution_strategy="auto",
    chief_config=tfc.MachineConfig(
        cpu_cores=8,
        memory=30,
        accelerator_type=tfc.AcceleratorType.NVIDIA_TESLA_T4,
        accelerator_count=2,
    ),
    docker_image_bucket_name=GCP_BUCKET,
)

Visualize the model using TensorBoard

Here, we are loading the Tensorboard logs from our GCS bucket to evaluate model performance and history.
tensorboard dev upload --logdir "gs://your-bucket-name/logs" --name "ResNet Dogs"

Evaluate the model

After training, we can load the model that's been stored in our GCS bucket, and evaluate its performance.
if tfc.remote():
    model = tf.keras.models.load_model(SAVE_PATH)
model.evaluate(test_data)

Next steps

This article introduced TensorFlow Cloud, a python package that simplifies the process of training models on the cloud using multiple GPUs/TPUs into a single function, with zero code changes to your model. You can find the complete code from this article here. As a next step, you can find this code example and many others on the TensorFlow Cloud repository.
Next post
Train your TensorFlow model on Google Cloud using TensorFlow Cloud
TensorFlow Core · Google Article

Posted by Jonah Kohn and Pavithra Vijay, Software Engineers at Google

TensorFlow Cloud is a python package that provides APIs for a seamless transition from debugging and training your TensorFlow code in a local environment to distributed training in Google Cloud. It simplifies the process of training models on the cloud into a single, simple function call, requiring minimal setup and almost zero …